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N67F75 2009 305.6’9782 1 — dc22 2009035966 ISSN 0929-2403 ISBN 978 90 04 17892 2 Copyright 2010 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Marshall Hodgson, for example, explains that Weber’s definition is based on his study of the Christian church, which differs from Islamic orthodoxy in many ways. I would like to acknowledge the help of institutions which gave me access to some of the rare and important documents used in this volume: the National Library at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the University of Haifa library, the Bibliotheque Nationale de France and the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris, and the John Rylands Library in Manchester. Cat: Catafago item 37 appeared as Zard bdshiyya 5 [sic]; Massignon item 27. Nevertheless, it offers the researcher an opportunity to learn about opinions in the Muslim world and the abilities of the ‘Alawls to integrate themselves within its society.

For a detailed list of primary sources including information about their contents and reliability, see Appendix 1. FRR Fiqh al-risdla al-rdstbdshiyyal al-Husayn ibn Hamdan al- Khasibi Silsilat al-turdth al-Alawi II, 83-156. KMA Kitab al-mashyakha English extracts available in S. KS Kitab al-sirdt /al-Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar (attributed) Ms. (Diyar ‘Aql, Lebanon: Dar min Ajl al-Ma‘rifa, 2006).

AAM Adab Abd al- Mu tta I i b / 1 s h a q ibn Muhammad al-Nakha‘I Silsilat al-turath al-'Alawi 1 VI, 261-287. HA Kitdb al-haft wa -’l-azilla/A- Mu fad d al ibn ‘Umar (attributed) Printed in Beirut: al-Matba‘a al-Kathulikiyya, 1969, Arif Tamir ed., 1969. HAD Haqaiq asrar al-din/ al-Hasan ibn Shuba al-Harranl Silsilat al-turdth al-Alawi IV, pp. Cat: Catafago item 9 as Kitdb al-haqaiq; Massignon item 63 attributed to Hamza ibn ‘Ali ibn Shu ba al- Harrani. Lyde, Asian Mystery Illustrated, in the History, Religion, and Present State of the Ansaireeh or Nusairis of Syria (London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1860), pp. The place and editors are fictitious: bizarrely, diyar ‘aql translates as “land of reason”; dar min ajl al-marifa translates as “publishing house for the sake of knowledge”.

Strothmann, “Esoterische Sonderthemen bei den Nusairi: Geschichte und Traditionen von den Heiligen Meistern aus dem Prophetenhaus”, Abhandungen der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1958). These texts, which certainly shed new light on the study of this sect, demand further research in the future.

XVI ABBREVIATIONS Printed in Beirut, appeared in 1 864 according to E. Salisbury, JAOS 8 ( 1 866) without place or date; reprinted corruptly by Dar al-Sahwa li-’l-Nashr, Cairo, in 1990. Cat: Catafago item 20; Massignon item 24 (wrong attribution of the anonymous Kitdb al-majmu to al-Khasibi). This book makes the first use of these medieval sources published in the Silsilat al-turath al-Alawi, excluding the editors’ additions and propaganda.

Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS CONTENTS Preface xi Abbreviations xv Note on Citation, Dates and Transliteration xxi Introduction 1 I. Ibn Nusayr — “The Gate of God” 6 1.1 Excommunication 8 1.2 His mystical circle 8 1.3 The creation of a community 11 1.4 Financing 12 1.5 The nida of Ibn Nusayr 13 1.6 Successor 14 1.7 The tradition of Ibn Nusayr’s superiority over his predecessors 15 1.8 Literature 16 1.9 Transition period 16 2. Al-Makzun al-Sinjari and the Nusayri awakening 51 9.1 A detailed biography 51 9.2 Al-Makzun’s innovations 53 10.

Al-Husayn ibn Hamdan al-Khas Ibl: the founder of the sect 17 2.1 His first mystical guidance 18 2.2 His second mystical guidance 19 2.3 Becoming a leader 20 2.4 Open propaganda 22 2.5 Immigration to Syria and creation of a new community 23 2.6 The return to Iraq 25 2.7 Al-Khaslbl’s taqiyya: posing as an Imam! 26 2.8 Establishing the Iraqi center 28 2.9 The connection with the Buyids 29 2.10 The successor in Iraq 30 2.11 The successor in Aleppo 31 2.12 Al-Khasibl’s writings 33 VI CONTENTS 3. Oppression under the Mamluks 56 10.1 First attempt to convert the Nusayris 56 10.2 The uprising of the Nusayri mahdi 57 10.3 A deadly /afvra of Ibn Taymiyya 62 1 1 . The nature of the divinity 72 2.1 The divine triad 73 2.1.1 Relations between mana and ism 78 2.1.2 Addition of the third aspect of divinity ....BS Kitab al-bakura al-Sulaymaniyya/ Sulayman al-Adhanl 1 J. HIF Kitdb al-hawi fi ‘ilm al-fatawal Maymun ibn al-Qasim al- Tabarani Silsilat al-turdth al-Alawi III, pp. Cat: Catafago item 22 as Kitdb al- hawi fi wdjibdt al-tilmidh; Massignon item 42. IM Kitdb idah al-misbdh/‘ Abdallah al-Jannan al-Junbulanl Silsilat al-turdth al-Alawi I, 236-299. ABBREVIATIONS XVII JK al-Jawhariyya al-kalbiyya/ Maymun ibn al-Qasim al-Tabarani Silsilat al-turath al-Alawi III, pp. Cat: Catafago item 38 as al- Jawhariyya ; Massignon item 50 as al-Jawdhir. The editor, who does not reveal his sources for the manuscripts, printed the texts with care and accuracy in most cases.Catafago, “Nouvelles melanges”, Journal Asiatique 4 (1876), pp. Massignon, “Esquisse dune bibliographie nusayrie”, Opera Minora I (1936), pp. Catafago s list is more detailed in Dussaud’s bibliography (1900), which sums up the Western research concerning the Nusayrls until his time. Dussaud, Histoire et religion des Nosairis (Paris: Librairie Emile Bouillon, 1900), pp. 2 This book is discussed in the Introduction: Abu Musa and Sheikh Musa, Silsilat al-turath al-'Alawi: rasail al-hikma al-‘Alawiyya, 6 vols. 3 See critical edition, Akhbar wa riwayat ‘an mawalina ahl al-bayt minhum al-saldtn, in R. HK Kitdb al-hidaya al-kubral al-Husayn ibn Hamdan al-Khasibi Printed in Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Balagh, 1986. HU A Kitdb al-hujub wa-’l-anwar /Muhammad ibn Sinan (attributed) Silsilat al-turdth al-Alawi VI, pp. KBS Kitab batin a/-5fl/af/Muhammad ibn ‘All al-Jilll Silsilat al-turath al-Alawi II, 219-272. KHA Kitab hawi ’l-as rd r / M u h amm a d ibn ‘All al-Jilll Silsilat al-turath al-Alawi II, 157-217. Moreover, I came to the conclusion that, regardless of the motives for their pub- lication, these are the most important sources for the academic study of Nusayrl history, doctrine and identity.Hence, our 1 As Hodgson noted: “Islamists, both Muslim and Western, have had a way of absorb- ing the point of view of orthodox Islam; this has gone so far that Christian Islamists have looked with horror on Muslim heretics”; see M. 8 The thesis defence took place at Sorbonne Paris IV, 27 February 2006. Friedman, “Ibn Taymiyyas fatawa against the Nusayrl-'Alawi sect”, Der Islam, 82:2 (2005), pp. ABBREVIATIONS The following list includes all the available sources of the Nusayri- ‘Alawl sect, with their abbreviations as used in this book, in alphabetical order. 191-194 as Masail Ibn Harun ild 1-Shaykh al-Khasibi; M. The main instruments for such evaluation are an inter-textual criticism of the content, and a search for citations of the text concerned in other sources. al-Mu allafat al-amma: abna Shuba al-Harraniyyin c. in the introduction, is known for his previous publications, such as al-Alawiyyun al-Nusayriyyun: bahth fi ’l-‘aqida wa-l-tarikh (1980, no place or publisher).Hitherto, two articles aimed to sum up the available Nusayri bibliography. unico (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale) e studio introduttivo”, Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 69 (1995), pp. Cat: Catafago item 16; Massignon item 1 attributed to al-Mufaddal. 2 INTRODUCTION The most prominent addition of sources in the present research in comparison with previous studies is a series of Nusayri sources printed recently in Lebanon: 1 Abu Musa and Shaykh Musa (eds.) a. al-Majmua al-Mufaddaliyya Book 6 al-Mufaddal ibn Amr [sic] al-Jufi The pseudonymous editor Abu Musa [al-Hariri], signing himself A. This last document, which is dissemi- nated nowadays through bookshops outside Syria and the Internet, reveals the author’s great hostility towards the sect.

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